Week 1: Basic Concepts of Physiology and Factors That Influence Disease Imagine the pain, suffering, and frustration patients feel when they find out they have been misdiagnosed with a disease or disorder. Additionally, consider the financial implications and consequences for time-sensitive disorders such as cancer. Since most disorders have multiple symptoms, and these symptoms are often prevalent in more than one disorder, it can be difficult for health care providers to diagnose patients correctly. As an advanced practice nurse making decisions related to diagnosis and treatment, you need to have an in-depth understanding of the pathophysiology of disorders, as well as factors that influence them. This week, in preparation for your role in evaluating patients, you examine the impact of patient factors on disease. You also explore the pathophysiology of disorders and resulting alterations in cellular function. Learning Objectives Students will: •Evaluate the impact of patient factors on disease •Analyze the pathophysiology of alterations in cellular function •Understand and apply key terms, concepts, and principles related to physiology and factors that influence disease Photo Credit: Tetra Images – Vstock/Brand X Pictures/Getty Images Learning Resources Required Readings Huether, S. E., & McCance, K. L. (2012). Understanding pathophysiology (Laureate custom ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby. •Chapter 1, “Cellular Biology” This chapter reviews cellular biology to establish a foundation for exploring the pathophysiology of disease. It also covers the structure and function of cellular components, cell-to-cell adhesions, cellular communication, cellular metabolism, membrane transport, the cell cycle, and tissues. •Chapter 2, “Genes and Genetic Diseases” This chapter explores genetic disorders and factors that impact genetic disorders. It also examines how mutations and chromosomal abnormalities lead to transmission of genetic disorders. •Chapter 3, “Altered Cellular and Tissue Biology” This chapter examines disorders related to cell adaptation, injury, and death. It also explores disorders associated with altered cellular and tissue function as a result of aging. McPhee, S. J., & Hammer, G. D. (2010). Pathophysiology of disease: An introduction to clinical medicine (Laureate Education, Inc., custom ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Medical. •Chapter 2, “Genetic Disease” This chapter reviews the clinical manifestations, pathophysiology, and genetic principles of genetic diseases. It also explores different types of genetic diseases and the mechanisms involved. •Chapter 5, “Neoplasia” This chapter explores various disorders associated with neoplasia. It also covers causes and effects of common cancers and tumors resulting from neoplasia. Required Media Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2012d). Introduction to advanced pathophysiology. Baltimore, MD: Author. Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 10 minutes. In this media presentation, Dr. Terry Buttaro, associate professor of practice at Simmons School of Nursing and Health Sciences, discusses the importance of pathophysiology for the advanced practice nurse. Accessible player –Downloads–Download Video w/CCDownload AudioDownload Transcript Discussion: Factors That Influence Disease In clinical settings, some of the most common questions that patients ask are Why do I have this? What caused this disorder? Will it ever go away? These emotional questions can be difficult to ask and to answer. However, for patients to come to terms with their diagnoses and adhere to treatment plans, they must have an understanding of factors that might have caused, or continue to impact, their disorders. As an advanced practice nurse, it is important that you are able to explain disorders, associated alterations and symptoms, and changes that might occur within your patients’ bodies. To Prepare •Review this week’s media presentation with Dr. Terry Buttaro. Reflect on the importance of developing an in-depth understanding of pathophysiology. •Select a disorder from the following list: •Adrenal insufficiency (Addison’s disease) •Atherosclerosis •Cholelithiasis (gallstones) •Colon cancer •Cystic fibrosis •Hemophilia •Nephrolithiasis (kidney stones) •Osteoporosis •Parkinson’s disease •Tuberculosis •Select one of the following patient factors: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior. Reflect on how that factor might impact your selected disorder, as well as potential associated alterations and symptoms. •Identify the pathophysiology of the associated alterations, including the normal and altered cellular function. Consider both intra- and extra-cellular changes that occur. Post a brief description of a patient scenario involving the disorder and the factor you selected. Explain how the factor might impact your selected disorder, as well as potential associated alterations and symptoms. Finally, explain the pathophysiology of the associated alterations, including changes in cellular function.
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