Discussion Board

I have attached the requirements and some answers from the student so you can have an idea about what HW is. you have 3 sections as you can see below, and you need to have the ideas to discuss for each one.  so in the end, I should have 3 ideas to discuss for each requires the are below


Problems are how questions, and we have a schematic for them. The schematic is artificial — it’s not the way you would actually describe problems in a professional setting. But using the schematic is an incredibly useful way to be precise and clear about the problem you’re trying to solve. It’s a tool for thinking clearly about problems.

So be sure to try that here. See if you can state specific problems as clear how to questions. Start with a rough version, and then fill in the details.

Some problems will start as one how question but then, as you make that more precise, it will make sense to break things up into a chain of how problems

Normative vs descriptive 

When discussing who is or isn’t professional, pay careful attention to when you’re making a normative claim, as opposed to a descriptive claim.

When you describe what someone did, that’s obviously a descriptive claim. But if you say that action represents something unprofessional,  you are making a normative claim.

We’re working on the assumption that being professional is something you ought to do, and being unprofessional is something you ought not to do. Therefore, saying that T’s behaviour, for example, is unprofessional is the same as saying T ought not to do that.


In the next unit on ethics, we will be talking about normative principles. Normative principles connect descriptive claims with normative ones.

The basic idea is that, in defining what it means to be professional, you are identifying descriptive features, and then attaching a normative judgment to those. Saying that actions are professional is making a normative claim: you’re saying that behaviour is something you ought to do.

To go at if from the other direction: we start with “you ought to be professional”, but then we have to fill in the descriptive details of what that actually means. What does it look like to be professional? What does it look like to not be professional?

So, you’re aiming for something like this: If you are professional then you do X, Y, or Z. (And, if you do X, Y and Z then you are professional.) Both versions are important.

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